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Thursday, 27 July 2017

Raspberry pi Cron jobs

There really isn't much raspi specific about cron jobs but I started looking into how cron jobs work when I was trying to run a python script automatically. cron jobs can be very useful when wanting to execute looping python scripts, because the cronjob will restart your script for instance after your raspi has lost power and reboots.

Cron, is essentially a daemon, that starts up at boot.


On the raspi (and most CentOs/Linux distro's), the location of crontabs file is:   


\var\spool\cron

The crontab file is where you define all the executions that need to take place and at what time.

The crontab syntax is as per below




A crontab file has five fields for specifying day , date and time followed by the command to be run at that interval.


Commands:


crontab -e    Edit crontab file, or create one if it doesn’t already exist.
crontab -l    crontab list of cronjobs , display crontab file contents.
crontab -r    Remove your crontab file.
crontab -v    Display the last time you edited your crontab file. (This option is                        Only available on a few systems.)



so to start editing use crontab -e which will open the unedited crontab in Nano, add executions and then CONTROL+O to save, then exit 

For example:

The command line below in a crontab file deletes all files in a temp folder at 18:30 every day:

30     18     *     *     *         rm /home/trespasser/tmp/*

If you wanted to log the execution of the above crontab execution, point it to create a log file as per below:

30     18     *     *     *         rm /home/trespasser/tmp/* > /home/trespasser/cronlogs/clean_tmp_dir.log


Frequency/repetition.

You can edit crontab to execute a certain line at a certain interval, say every 5 minutes; all the time. In order to do that, and let me keep the previous python script execution as our example:

*/5 * * * * sudo python3 /home/pi/pythonscripts/dfj_gmail_test_v1g.py > /home/pi/pythonscripts/cronlog.log

Here, the line is executed every 5 minutes, disregarding time of day.


You might want to run a python script in the back ground to run in a certain frequency. Now you could loop the script itself, but that would mean you would need to constantly have a session open to the raspi or start it up manually each time it lost power or got recycled, unless you run it with no hangup (I will discuss this in a separate post).

Of course none of this is any good if the cron daemon is not running. To verify if it is:

pi@raspberrypi:/var/log$ service cron status

cron is running.


Now what you have to remember, is that the HOME directory from which crontab works is /home.  This means if you want to run a script for instance from any other directory then /home so one of its subdirectories for instance, it is wise to do a cd line in crontab first to move to the directory from which to execute the script.

Now, before you rely on your crontab's execution, it is good to mock up the command line that you added to the crontab file from the command prompt to see if you did not make any syntax mistakes.

Multiple command lines to do the same execution, in general, is not a good idea as multiple lines do no reference each other. For example:

a crontab with:

01 15 * * * cd /home/pi/pythonscripts
01  15 * * *sudo python3 dfj_gmail_test_v1g.py > /home/pi/pythonscripts/cronlog.log)

would not work as the first line, containing cd /home/pi/pythonscript does not actuall effect the excecution of the second crontab line. So it is better to merge these two commands (lines) into one crontab statement, merging them with &&


cd /home/pi/pythonscripts && sudo python3 dfj_gmail_test_v1g.py > /home/pi/pythonscripts/cronlog.lo

alternatively point the execution of your python script, to its absolute path, as per below:



sudo python3 /home/pi/pythonscripts/dfj_gmail_test_v1g.py > /home/pi/pythonscripts/cronlog.lo


One thing you have to make sure of is that your machine has the correct time and timezone, and the raspberry pi, you might need to run raspi-config (internalization options). 

If you want to trouble shoot the execution of Crontab, possibly because i, writes it's execution result to syslog, which can be found at : 

/var/log/syslog


for example:

ul 28 16:19:01 raspberrypi /usr/sbin/cron[1935]: (pi) RELOAD (crontabs/pi)
Jul 28 16:25:01 raspberrypi /USR/SBIN/CRON[2697]: (pi) CMD (cd /home/pi/pythonscripts )
Jul 28 16:25:01 raspberrypi /USR/SBIN/CRON[2698]: (pi) CMD (sudo python3 dfj_gmail_test_v1g.py > /home/pi/pythonscripts/cronlog.log)

Jul 28 16:25:02 raspberrypi /USR/SBIN/CRON[2695]: (CRON) info (No MTA installed, discarding output)

checking your syslog, will also confirm the time your line in the crontab was executed.


Namaste! Folks

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